This article throws light upon the twelve main reasons for unequal distribution of population. Some of the reasons are: 1. Fertile Land 2. Availability of Mineral Wealth 3. Availability of Water Supply 4. Increased facility of Transportation and Communication 5. Availability of Electric Supply 6. Favourable Climate 7. Social Factors 8. Migration of Population and Others.
Reason # 1. Fertile Land:
Human settlements on large scale are at places which are more fertile and where with- less efforts the agricultural yield is more. On the other hand, places which are less fertile have less density of population. As such, hilly and rocky regions are less densely populated. In India, since ancient times, the fertile Indo-Gangetic plain is one of the most densely populated regions in the world.
Reason # 2. Availability of Mineral Wealth:
Every nation possesses some type of mineral wealth. As a matter of fact, we can gauge the inequality between nations on the basis of their mineral wealth. The regions of mineral wealth become a major source of industrialization and employment of a country.
They attract people from far and near. At such places, the density of population is high due to centralization of industries. The main reason for high density of Europe is the availability of mineral wealth, because chances of employment increase, more industries are established and cities develop.
Reason # 3. Availability of Water Supply:
Water is essential for life. The places which have abundant water for daily consumption and for agricultural purposes are moderately to densely populated. In the present era, even industries are established at places which have sufficient supply of water.
In the past, human civilization originated on the banks of large- rivers. The Indus and Nile valley civilizations originated and developed along the banks of mighty rivers. Ancient cities originated and developed along river banks. On the other hand, due to scarcity of water and harsh climate, there are less human dwellings in Arabia.
Reason # 4. Increased facility of Transportation and Communication:
Since ancient times areas with proper transportation and communication facilities have enjoyed large population. Means of transportation and communication make the economy dynamic and increase the exchange of commodities between peoples and regions. Goods produced in one region can be made available to the whole country in a very short period of time due to fast means of transportation.
At places where transportation costs are low, we find localisation and centralisation of industries and concentration of population. Consequently, the density of population increases. In ancient times, the main means of transportation were waterways. Hence human population was centred at the banks of large rivers where cities developed. On the other hand, in hilly areas and desert regions, where transportation is difficult, human dwellings are few and far in between.
Reason # 5. Availability of Electric Supply:
Today, nearly all the countries are industrialised. Agriculture-based economy has given way to industrial economy. Ready and sufficient supply of electricity is an essential feature in industrial development. Thus, places where industries are centralised develop into industrial regions with high density of population, and the demand for electric power increases.
Many cities in India are familiar with this process. Due to industrial development, the previously small regions like Durgapur, Jamshedpur and Bhillai, etc. have become large industrial areas, where the density of population keeps on increasing. This has become possible due to the availability of power supply among other factors.
Reason # 6. Favourable Climate:
From the beginning of human civilization, favourable climate is considered as an important factor responsible for human habitation. The density is nearly zero in places which are extremely hot or extremely cold. The parts which have moderate climate are inhabited on a large scale.
Reason # 7. Social Factors:
Social factors also affect the distribution and concentration of population. Where social customs and taboos are extreme, people tend to migrate to another place, so the density of population of that area changes. If the cultural milieu is the same, people like to live permanently at that place. The African population is increasing in America because Negroes were settled there since the slavery era.
Reason # 8. Migration of Population:
Every time migration of population takes place, it has an important effect on the distribution of population. The places with more opportunities of employment or possibilities of high income generation attract people from different areas.
In the past, people migrated in large numbers to America, and the present day migration to Middle Eastern countries are good examples of migration due to better employment and income generation opportunities.
Reason # 9. Educational Factors:
In each part of the country, there remains a class which has more curiosity to gain knowledge. This class moves from one country to another according to its own economic conditions and circumstances. If the environment of the new country is adaptable to them, they tend to settle there permanently.
At present, lakhs of youths from Asia and Africa have migrated to America, Canada and European countries for higher studies and after getting employment, they have settled there permanently.
Reason # 10. Political Factors:
For changes in the world’s population distribution, political factors are also responsible. In modern times, these factors have become more important. If the people feel that their expectations are not fulfilled by the government, or if the public is dissatisfied with the political system, then they leave that country and settle in another.
In the past, such people have migrated to USA from Cuba. Similarly, the Tibetans with their head Dalai Lama migrated to India and settled here permanently.
Reason # 11. Historical Factors:
It is a well-known fact that humans never migrate easily to a new place. Once a person settles well at a certain place, he will never leave that area to settle in a new area. People like to settle at places where their ancestors have lived in the past. Sons and grandsons from generation to generation live at a place which they do not leave so easily.
During natural disasters like earthquakes, famines, etc. people also like to live at their native places. In this way, due to historical reasons we have Marwaris in Marwar, Marathas in Maharashtra and Bengalis in Bengal. People sharing a cultural heritage are united and feel proud of living in their own place of origin.
Reason # 12. Economic Factors:
This has been considered an important factor affecting the distribution and concentration of population at one place. The places which have good opportunities for employment and possibilities of trade in industrial products attract migrants from different areas.
As the migration takes place on a large scale, the density of population increases at the migrated place. Generally, during the process of economic development, migration of population takes place from the villages to the cities. People are attracted by employment opportunities in cities. Thus the population of cities increases rapidly, and so does the density of population.