Sociology questions and answers for upcoming Ph.d entrance examination. This will also assist the students & aspirants of MA, M.Phil, UPSC, IAS, Civil Services, Eligibility tests & UGC-SET to crack their competitive exams!
100+ Sociology Questions and Answers for Ph.d Entrance Examination
1. ‘Pattern variables’ are________ in number
2. Who has codified and systematized functional analysis in terms of contemporary sociological theory __________?
3. ______ equates functional analysis with sociological analysis
(a) Kingsley Davis
(b) Wilbert Moore
(c) R.E. Park
4. ________ treats functionalism as a perspective which stops the motions of the system at a fixed point of time.
(a) Alex Inkles
5. _______ has provided a comprehensive historical account of conflict theory beginning with Kautilya’s Arthashashtra?
(b) M.N. Srinivas
(c) A.R. Desai
(d) D P. Mukherjee
6. Who has categorised groups on the basis of their relations to other groups?
(a) E.A. Ross
(d) George Hasen
7. George Hasen has classified group as
(b) unsocial, pseudo-social, antisocial, pro- social
(c) organising, unorganised, pseudo- organised
(d) socializing, internalizing, reference
8. A field of study that acknowledges that culture and learning affect human behaviour, although its central hypothesis is that many adaptive behaviours are linked to genetic characteristics is
(b) Cultural biology
9._______ are in short, rules that you know without knowing that you know them.
(a) Implicit norm
(b) Explicit norm
10. Organised Social Life emerges from
(a) social organisation
(b) social interaction
(c) social culture
(d) social group
11. Female headed family are frequent among
(a) agricultural communities
(b) industrial communities
(c) semi-nomadic pastoral communities
(d) post-industrial communities
12. Which among the following tribes/castes has high standard and rate of marriage stability?
13. System of ’gerentocracy’ in tribals separated the
(a) Old from young
(b) Un-married youth from much married, polygynous elders.
(c) Much powerful old with obedient youth
(d) Economically rich and active youth with non-active and poor old
14. Marriage alliance between three or more persons is called
15. Fill in the blanks. Inheritance rules therefore tend to indicate the________ a person has towards_______,
(a) Obligations, relatives
(b) Rights, sons only
(c) Obligations, eldest son
(d) Rights, eldest son
16. Which of the following factors, according to Durkheim, obstruct changeover from mechanical to organic solidarity?
2. Inadequate organisation
3. Inequality of opportunities
Select the correct answer from the codes given below-
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
17. Concentric zones pattern of city growth was propounded by
(a) Max Weber
(b) Homer Whyte
(c) Park and Burgess
(d) Marris and Ulman
18. Who has propounded the multiple centre pattern in 1945?
(a) Morris and Ulman
(b) Robert Redfield
(d) Louis Wirth
19. A residence area characterized by structural decay, overcrowding, lack of recreational space and neglect of neighbourhood facilities is called
(a) Middle town
(b) Worker’s residents
(d) Zone in transition
20. When a slum is inhabited largely or exclusively by persons of a single ethnic or racial group, it may be called a
21. The book ‘Caste in Indian Politics’ is written by
(a) M.N. Srinivas
(b) F.G. Bailey
(c) Rajni Kothari
(d) Andre Beteille
22. The book ‘The Modernity of Tradition political Development in India’ is written by
(a) Rudolph and Rudolph
(b) M.N. Srinivas
(c) F.G. Bailey
(d) A. Beteille
23. Arguing with Weber, who has said that communist bureaucracy is as privileged as the capitalist class, on the basis of its monopoly of power?
(a) M. Djilas
(b) R. Dahrendorf
(c) K. Marx
(d) Marshal Sahlens
24. Belief in Mana has been brought out as an important factor in the origin of the caste system in India by
25. Who called magic as the ‘bastard sister’ of science?
26. Given below are the definitions of some forms of religion and magic. In these items one or more of the answers given may be correct. Decide which are correct and mark your answer sheet according to the codes given below –
(1) Religion is the result of intellectual speculation of the primitive man
(2) Animatism is a belief in the existence of material and natural force which resides in matter
(3) Animism is a belief in spirits residing in animate and inanimate objects
(4) Magical processes are the outcome of logical thinking and they aim at pleasing the deities
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 2 and 4
(c) 2 only
(d) 4 only
27. Raymond Aron treats this American concept of class presented by L. Warner as
28. Warner’s study of American class structure is close to
(a) Marx’s class structure
(b) Weber’s status group
(c) D.P. Mukerjee’s class approach
(d) Veblen’s conspicuous consumption
29. Some form of ranking is universal and so presents in all societies including primitive societies. This observation is made by
(a) E. Durkheim
(b) K. Marx
(c) M. Weber
(d) Marshal Sahlins
30. Malinowski’s study of the Trobriand Island clearly shows that the prestige and power are related to the
(a) Redistribution of wealth
(b) Dissemination of knowledge
(c) Mastery over boat making
(d) Good at fishing
31. The concept of ‘Cumulative Inequality’ is propounded by
(a) Andre Beteille
(b) M.N. Srinivas
(c) Louis Dumont
(d) Makimm Marriott
32. Naotia tribes are inhabitant of?
33. Recent sociological studies of property in industrial society have been largely concerned with two aspects. Which are these two?
1. The distribution of property and its social effects
2. Mode of production
3. Relation of production
4. The ownership and control of industrial enterprises in modern capitalism.
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 1 and 4
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 and 4
34. ‘Maori’ tribes were found in
(b) New Zealand
35. Which among the following is most isolated tribe of India?
36. Khuntkatti Land system, which is joint holdings by khunts or tribal lineage were found in
37. Which of the following pair(s) is/are correctly matched?
1. Variation in mortality with age represents a ‘J’ shaped curve – Characteristic of developed countries
2. Concept of proximate variables of fertility – Contribution of K. Davis and Judith Blake
3. Variation in mortality represents ‘U’ shaped curve – Characteristic of under developed countries
4. Net reproduction rate (NRR) is equal to one – A stagnant population
Select the correct answer using the codes given below-
(a) 2 and 3
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 4 alone
38. Low birth-weight and pregnancy wastage in the population are primarily due to
(a) traditional practices
(b) maternal malnutrition
(c) female illiteracy
(d) insufficient health care
39. Based on the 1981-91 decennial growth rate of population, states with the highest and the lowest growth rates are respectively
(a) Arunachal Pradesh and Goa
(b) Nagaland and Kerala
(c) Arunachal Pradesh and Kerala
(d) Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu
40. The difference between the number of people coming into the area and those going out of that area is called
(a) volume of migration
(b) natural migration
(c) net migration
(d) gross migration
41. Which one of the following measures of fertility can be computed from date on sex and age alone from a single census?
(a) Child-woman ratio
(b) Total fertility rate
(c) Crude birth rate
(d) Age specific fertility rate
42. In a frequency distribution the last cumulative frequency is 300, Median shall lie in:
(a) 140th item
(b) 150th item
(c) 160th item
(d) 130th item
43. Step deviation method to estimate arithmetic mean can be applied only when:
(a) it is a discrete series
(b) it is an individual series we are examining
(c) it is continuous series
(d) deviations are divisible by a common factor
44. The mean monthly salary paid to all employees of a company is Rs.5000. The mean monthly salary paid to male and female employees is Rs.5,250 and Rs.4,000 respectively. The percentage of females in total employees is:
(a) 60 percent
(b) 10 percent
(c) 20 percent
(d) 40 percent
45. The sum of deviations taken from actual arithmetic mean is:
46. The formula for the calculation of the Mode is:
(a) Mode = 3 Mean – 2 Median
(b) Mode = 2 Mdn. – 2 Mean
(c) Mode = 3 Mdn. – 2 Mean
(d) Mode = 4 Mdn. – 3 Mean
47. Consider the following statements:
1. External family consists of two mates of opposite sex and their offspring.
2. Conjugal family consists of two mates of opposite sex and their offspring.
3. Consanguineous family consists of two mates of opposite sex and their offspring.
Which of the statements given above is correct?
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 3 only
48. Which among the following statements is not correct?
(A) In past communities used to be self-sufficient, politically, socially or economically.
(B) No community can be self-sufficient these days
(C) Every community is self-sufficient these days
(D) The term community denotes almost uniformly and permanently shared lives of people over a definite range.
49. Consider the following statements about family:
1. Family regulates sexual behaviour through incest taboo.
2. Family provides ethnics identity.
3. Family serves as an occupational guild.
4. Family provides predictable social contexts within which its children are to be socialized.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(A) 1, 2 and 3
(B) 1, 2 and 4
(C) 1 and 3
(D) 2 and 4
50. Choose the answer by using code to identify Malinowski’s work:
1. ‘Crime and Custom in Savage Society’
2. ‘Argonants of Western Pacific
3. ‘Magic Science, Religion and Other Essays’
4. Sex and Repression
(A) 1, 2
(B) 2 only
(C) 1, 2, 3, 4
(D) 1, 2, 4
51. Those aspects of social life that have to do with order, stability, and social organization that allow societies and groups to hold together and endure are called:
(A) social statics.
(B) social dynamics.
(C) social absolutes.
(D) constructed reality.
52. Which of the following explains about the status of religion in rural society is not correct?
(A) Village economy is dependent on nature
(B) Religious outlook dominates other aspects of rural life
(C) The priestly class does not succeed much in influencing the educated and scientifically awakened people
(D) Religion occupies a core place in all the activities of rural life
53. After Marx, the concept of alienation began more and more to be regarded as a socio-psychological condition of the individual. Who in this context isolated the concept of alienation into powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation and self-estrangement?
(A) Eric Fromm
(B) R. Blauner
(C) M. Seeman
(D) R. K. Merton
54. Who was the person, who deliberated upon the above views?
He introduced the distinction between the law of public delicts and the law of private delict which allowed for a sociological discussion of the different types of sanctions aroused by offences of each type, even when the actual offence may in one society be socially regarded as of a different category from that in another. Murder for instance is a public delict in modern western societies but among some people it is private delict-
(A) R. Brown
(B) B. Malinowski
(D) Anthony Giddens
55. Who defined family in this way?
The family is a group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood, or adoption; constituting a single household, interacting and intercommunicating with each other in their respective social role of husband and wife, mother and father, brother and sister; creating a common culture’-
(A) L.H. Morgan
(B) Maclver and Page
(C) E.W. Burgess and H.J. Locke
(D) Park and Burgess
56. Identify the sociologist-
A social system basically consists of two or more individuals interacting directly or indirectly in a bounded situation. However, a more specific definition of social system has been given by a noted sociologist, who defines it as consisting in ‘a plurality of individual actor interacting with each other in a situation which has at least a physical or environmental aspect, actors who are motivated in terms of a tendency to the “optimization of gratification” and whose relations to their situations including each other is defined and mediated in terms of a system of culturally structured and shared symbols.’-
(A) A. M. Henderson
(B) Ralf Dahrendorf
(C) Talcott Parsons
(D) Max Weber
57. While analysing the development of ‘self’ who has used the concept ‘significant others’?
58. Which of the following is not one of the criticisms against sociology having its own subject matter?
(a) Sociology is merely a mixture of varied studies disciplines having social content
(b) The subject matter of sociology is disintegrated into various other social sciences
(c) Subject matter of sociology has been derived from many social sciences
(d) The subject matter of sociology is a part of society.
Community and Association:
59. In rural society even now a family is like:
(a) A society
(b) A community
(c) A group
(d) An association
60. In India the institution of family has a trend towards:
(a) Joint family
(b) Single family
(c) Patriarchal family
(d) Matriarchal family
61. These days in India the institution of marriage is weakening because:
(a) Our religious leaders are becoming rigid
(b) Women are becoming economically self-sufficient
(c) Less number of people are liking to marry
(d) People prefer small size family
62. Agriculture was evolved independently in Southeastern, South-western Asia and the New World. This is an example of:
(b) Covergent evolution
(d) Culture area
63. ‘Style of life’ concept which attempts to explain culture integration was given by:
(b) Redcliffe Brown
64. Which one of the following factors is not responsible for cultural Jag?
(c) Political upheavals
65. Who of the following is the author of the book entitled ‘The Decline of the West’?
(a) Oswald Spengler
(b) R.M. Maclver
(c) Nimkoff and Ogbum
(d) Arnold J. Toynbee
66. Culture is a __________ heritage of man:
(d) None of the above
67. Primary groups are __________ whereas secondary groups are_______:
(a) Non-contractual, Non-economic
(b) Relationship-directed, goal-oriented
(c) Formal, spontaneous
(d) Non-political, Ideal
68. The concept of ‘reference-group’ was first given by:
(d) Robert Bierstod
69. Who of the following has said about herd that ‘It is not mode of life but an incident, an eruption, sometimes a disturbance of an established social pattern’?
(a) Gillin and Gillin
(b) K. Young
(c) Kingsley Davis
70. Which of the following does not hold true of the crowd?
(a) There is no question of maintaining discipline
(b) There is definite motive of the crowd
(c) There is no definite motive of the crowd
(d) No efforts are made to maintain interest of the people
71. Which of the following is not the difference between a primary and a secondary group?
(a) In primary group size is small whereas in secondary group it is large
(b) In primary group members are spread in limited area whereas in secondary group over vast area
(c) In primary group relationship between the members is indirect whereas in secondary group it is direct
(d) In primary group members cooperate spontaneously whereas that is not the case with secondary group
72. In our modern society which one of the following is not relevant factor in status?
(a) Extent of distribution of rewards
(b) Hereditary position of the ancestors
(c) Accumulated wealth
(d) Influence in administration
73. Which one of the following is not relevant to status?
(a) It helps in specialisation of functions
(b) It is essential for promotion of responsibility
(c) It is needed for balanced personality development
(d) It helps in developing honesty and integrity.
74. Who has said in relevance to status that, “Every society, no matter how simple or complex, must differentiate persons in terms of both prestige and esteem.”
(b) Gillin and Gillin
(c) Kingsley Davis
75. Status is essential-
(a) For an individual only
(b) For the society as a whole
(c) Neither for the individual nor for the society
(d) Both for the individual and the society
76. ______ refers to formally designated position in a group with officially specified rights and duties.
(a) Formal status
(b) Legal status
(d) Functional status
77. Deviant behaviour of one generation:
(a) is usually same for the other generation as well
(b) can become norm for the other generation
(c) is usually norm of another generation
(d) cannot become norm of another generation
78. About social deviant behaviour it is believed that:
(a) it has direct relationship with family atmosphere
(b) family atmosphere has nothing to do with it
(c) it has indirect relationship with parent-child relationship
(d) none of the above statement is true
79. Physical theory about socially deviant behaviour makes one believe that:
(a) all types of bodies are equally receptive to deviant behaviour.
(b) no body is inclined towards deviant behaviour
(c) some bodies are more exposed to deviant behaviour than the others
(d) some type of bodies will be receptive to deviant behaviour in the same manner
80. Anomic arises due to:
(a) normless confusion in norms
(b) rigidity of norms
(c) group harshnes
(d) individual strictness
81. Beginning of new norms is usually due to:
(a) unhappy family relations
(b) resentment against existing socio-economic
(c) deviant behaviour of few individuals
(d) outdated educational system
82. Which one of the following has not been characterised as a negative function of competition by H.T. Mazumdar?
(a) It may lead to neurosis
(b) It may lead to monopoly
(c) It may lead to conflicts
(d) It may lead to social disharmony
83. Which one of the following is not a true statement about competition?
(a) It enhances one’s ego
(b) It is conducive to efficiency
(c) It prevents undue concentration of powers
(d) It creates respect for rules of the game
84. Which one of the following is not an important function of competition? It helps-
(a) In determining the status of an individual in the hierarchy
(b) To stimulate economy
(c) In promoting monopoly conditions
(d) In inventiveness
85. Which of the following is not the characteristic of competition?
(a) It is found among all the species
(b) It is an inborn tendency
(c) It differs in degree from one society to the other
(d) Its degree is determined by social values
86. Which of the following is not true of competition?
(a) It is entirely un-restricted
(b) It aims at banishing or destroying the enemy
(c) It is not coercion
(d) It helps in the elimination of force of fraud
87. __________ is a form of marriage in which men of lower caste marry women of superior caste.
88. A Muslim can marry ________ wives at a time.
89._____ is the rule that restricts marriages to persons outside of specific groups.
(c) Incest taboo
90. When one woman marriages several men at a time, the form of marriage is called___________.
91. Who has defined marriage as “a ‘contract’ for the production and maintenance of children”?
92. What is a matrilocal family?
(a) A family in which the wife is chosen from the local caste
(b) A family in which the wife is chosen from the local village
(c) A family in which the husband lives at his wife’s parent’s house
(d) A family belonging to one locality
93. Which of the following is an essential function of family according to Maclver?
(a) Stable satisfaction of sexual need
(b) Production of rearing of children
(c) Provision of a home
(d) All of the above
94. Which of the following is NOT the characteristic of family?
(a) It is based on mating relationship
(b) It is essentially based on duration of the marriage
(c) It pre-supposes institution of marriage
(d) Each family has some nomenclature
95. Which one of the following is NOT the characteristic of family?
(a) It can be reckoned either from male or female like
(b) In it the head of the family is expected to meet economic needs of the members
(c) In it there need not be common habitation
(d) It can consist of any type of marriage
96. The system under which woman can marry more than one husband and keep all of them with herself is known as-
97. The bond between the blood relatives is called-
(a) affinal kinship
(b) consanguineal kinship
(c) primary kinship
(d) secondary kinship
98. _________is a kind of kinship usages.
(c) Incest Taboo
99. A group is said to be a ‘broad range’ or narrow range’, according to the number of persons it includes-
(c) bilateral descent
100. If a person is related to ‘ego’ directly, then he is ego’s___________.
(a) secondary kin
(b) direct kin
(c) primary kin
(d) first kin
101. Which one of the following does not influence kinship today?
(a) Shift on urbanisation
(b) Emergence of new occupational societies
(c) Clash of interests
(d) Disintegration of joint family system
102. Basis of social stratification is:
(a) social inequality
(b) social harmony
(c) social understanding
(d) social problems
103. Which one of the following is NOT a salient feature of social disorganisation?
(a) It is conflict between the old and the new order
(b) It is outcome of transfer of functions from one group to the other
(c) It results in change in social structure
(d) It is the outcome of rigid political party system
104. Which one is NOT true of social disorganisation?
(a) It is a malady
(b) It is a process
(c) It is relative to social organisation
(d) Social organisation of today can he disorganisation of tomorrow
105. Which of the following classification of social problems has been given by Harold A. Phelps?
(a) Physical, cultural and economic
(b) Heritage-physical, biological and cultural
(c) System-social, economic and political
(d) Customs-new, outdated, continuing
106. Social problem may be defined as conditions which:
(a) effect a group of people
(b) effect a class of people
(c) favourable effect large number of people
(d) adversely effect large number of people
107. In the beginning, in the world the type of society which existed was:
108. Life in agrarian society was based on:
(a) strict division of labour
(b) division of unavoidable labour
(c) system in which there was no division of labour
(d) iron law of wages
109. In post-agrarian society, as compared with the agrarian society, the life:
(a) was simple
(b) was less burdensome
(c) more tedious
(d) contacts were more personal and formal
110. Which of the following was NOT one of the characteristic of post-agrarian society?
(a) Feudal system had begun
(b) Cultivation system had developed
(c) Formal contacts had strengthened
(d) Neighbourhood contacts had become strong
111. Which one of the following is true of industrial society?
(a) controls are more informal than formal
(b) crime rate is always high
(c) the people believe in magic
(d) the people live comfortably
112. ‘A condition in which individuals did not freely choose their occupations but were forced into them’. This type of division was called by Durkheim as-
113. A condition in which there was a permanent division of labour between labour and capital was known as-
114. Which of the following is NOT a form of division of labour?
(a) social division of labour
(b) technical division of labour
(c) territorial division of labour
(d) decentralized division of labour
115. Which of the following is another name of the territorial division of labour?
(a) Social division of labour
(b) Technical division of labour
(c) Forced division of labour
(d) Socialization of industries
116. When division is made into different occupations it is known as ___________.
(a) technical division of labour
(b) social division of labour
(c) territorial division of labour
(d) all of the above
117. Who said this?
“The owners of mere labour-power, the owners of capital and the landlords whose respective sources of income are wages, profit, rent, in other words, wage labourers, capitalists, and landlords, form the three great classes of modern society resting upon the capitalist mode of production”.
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Max Weber
(c) R. Dahrendorf
(d) C.W. Mills
118. Which of the following ideologies supports the institution of private property?
(d) None of the above
119. “The Puritan wanted work to be his’ vocation; we are forced to want it,” who said these words?
(b) Max Weber
(c) W.E. More
(d) J.A. Schumpeter
120. Trade union is-
(a) an occupational group
(b) a business group
(c) a competitive group
(d) a familial group
121. Trade unions grew-
(a) in industrialized societies
(b) in the ruralized societies
(c) in the illiterate societies
(d) in the primitive societies
122. According to Polyani-
(a) few empirical economies display more than one principle of allocation
(b) most empirical economies display more than one principle of allocation
(c) no economy displays more than one principle of allocation
(d) none of the above