This article provides information about the consequences of development on ecology and environment:
The tremendous impact of human ecology is well manifested in the life-support systems including air, water, land and energy. As the human population grows, there appear imbalance of food production and crisis of space leading to environmental pollution which unfavourably alters our surroundings.
Survival in such circumstances calls for an expansion or movement to a different place and destruction of the natural forest for human existence and comfort. These human activities in due course lead to all sorts of unfavourable alteration of our environment (pollution), which is now a worldwide concern. These human activities are as follows:
There are some of the major sources of water pollution:
i. Industrial effluents:
Wastes or toxic byproducts.
ii. Sewage wastes:
This contains decomposable organic matter and pathogenic agents directly discharged into rivers, streams, lakes, etc.
iii. Agricultural pollutants:
There are excessive agricultural nutrients such as fertilizers, disease controlling chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides).
These pollutants damage not only human beings but plants and animals alike. However, compared to the other two, industrial effluents cause much greater pollution.
Air Pollution and Noise:
The sources are:
i. Industrial manufacturing processes:
Steel, chemical plants, oil refineries, fertilizer factories, etc.
Industrial and domestic combustion of coal, oil, forest fires, etc; through smoke, dust, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, etc.
These emit carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, suspended particulate matter.
Agricultural activities such as crop spraying for pest control, nuclear energy programmes, etc.
v. Radiation pollution:
For example the one happened in Chernobyl or Gas tragedy in Bhopal.
Here too, the omission of gases from industries, manufacturing and in radiation cause the greatest pollution.
i. Solid fallout from explosion of nuclear devices.
ii. Agricultural activities — over application of inorganic manure and different chemical-based pesticides.
Destruction of Forest:
Large-scale deforestation leads to flood, soil erosion, silting of rivers, contraction of agricultural areas and desertification. We see more deforestation through forest contractors than from local villagers who use the wood as fuel.
All these types of pollution affect human health directly or indirectly through environment, other flora and fauna, recreational amenities and productivity.