Are you preparing for UGC-NET (2019-2020)? Here is a list of expected sociology questions and answers that is most likely to come for IAS, Civil Services, UGC-NET, UPSC, eligibility tests and other competitive examinations!
Expected Sociology Questions and Answers for UGC-NET
1. First-hand study of a small group is called
2. In his/her study of human behaviour, sociologists
(a) determine which values are of greatest importance
(b) treat values as data which he studies
(c) attempts to justify the values of his society if he/she is good at sociology
(d) leaves values completely along since they have no place in human behaviour
3. The questionnaire method of data collection is not applicable if there is
(a) an illiteracy
(b) an overpopulation
(c) a big area
(d) a heterogeneous area
4. The Book ‘Invitation to Sociology’ is written by
(a) H.E. Barns
(b) P.L. Berger
5. The social distance method is developed by
(b) Goode & Hyatt
6. The method employed for measuring socioeconomic status of the people where maximum importance attached to the occupation of a person is
(a) Differential scale
(b) Edward method
(c) Scale analysis
(d) Role distance
7. Social organisation means
(a) Planned activities
(b) Organised activities
(c) Calculated activities
(d) Defined activities
8. Social control has two aspects. These are-
(a) Pressure oriented and value oriented
(b) Pressure oriented and norms oriented
(c) Culture oriented and customs oriented
(d) Religion oriented and education oriented
9. The organised forms of social behaviour and their repetition are called
10. Customs are also called
11. When the balance between the material and non-material culture is disrupted by rapid social change, the material culture changes rapidly and the non-material culture is left behind. This situation is called
(a) left culture
(c) cultural lag
(d) taken culture
12. Which among the following is true?
(a) Divorce is physical separation of the spouses
(b) Separation is legal termination of a marriage
(c) Both (a) & (b) are true
13. In okka, children of_______ may not intermarry
14. The okka or the patrilineal and patrilocal joint family is the basic group among
15. Which among the following has added to the strength of the okka?
(a) Difficulty of partition
(b) Preference of levirate unions
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Ancestor worships
16. The solidarity of independent nuclear family is greater where it includes
(a) loving wife
(b) caring husband
(c) young children
(d) better economic prospects
17. Whose studies, considered the Indian village as a ‘closed’ and isolated system?
3. Karl Marx
4. Baden Powell
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 4
(d) 1, 2 and 4
18. “The Indian City, old or modern, is Indian just as an American city is American. Nothing is gained by imagining that the word ‘city’ automatically implies certain comparable features.” Whose opinion is this?
(a) D.F. Pocock’s
(b) Oscar Lewis
(c) Robert Redfield
(d) Louis Wirth
19. Who among the following has rejected the notion of dichotomy between rural and urban and also the view that urbanisation is an independent variable?
(a) R.K. Mukherjee
(b) Louis Wirth
(c) K. Ishwaran
(d) Milton Singer
20. Rao M.S.A classifies urban studies into three categories. Which of the following is not a one?
(a) Those which formulate the cultural role of cities in the context of social organisation of the great tradition
(b) Those concerned with the institutional approaches
(c) Those treating cities and their growth in the general context of history of civilization.
(d) Those concerned with the little tradition.
21. According to whom does city consisted of middle classes and groups engaged in trade and commerce?
22. Who among the following studied the degeneration of forms of government and stressed the need for a middle class as a stabilizing force in the political order?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Max Weber
(d) C.W. Mills
23. Government must rest on a social bond between rulers and ruled. Who holds this?
(a) T. Hobbes
24. Who among the following has suggested that members of society can be divided into four categories in terms of their degree of political participation?
(b) Lester Milbrath
(c) W. Pareto
25. According to Lester Milbrath gradiatorial activities comprise of
(a) standing for and holding public and party offices
(b) contributing for political parties financially and physically
(c) taking part in debate and confrontation on behalf of party
(d) voting and taking part in discussion about politics
26. Which among the following is not correct?
(a) Various studies have shown that political participation is directly proportional to income level
(b) Men are likely to have higher levels of participation than women
(c) Young persons participate more than middle aged and old aged
(d) Married people participate more than single people
27. Structural view of caste, considers caste to be a/an
(a) Structure on which principle of stratification is based
(b) Universal principle of stratification which can be applied to all society.
(c) Equivalent to varna and jati.
(d) Structure on which caste system is based.
28. Cultural view of caste is consider caste to be
(a) Basis for development of societal culture
(b) Basis on which culture of discrimination is inherent
(c) System of stratification unique to India
(d) Differentiate between culture of twice born castes with those of ‘untouchables’
29. The group of thinkers supported cultural view of caste were
(a) Weber, Barth, Bailey
(b) Srinivas Barth, Bailey
(c) Weber, Srinivas, Dumont
(d) Dumont, Weber, Bailey
30. The group of thinkers who supported structural view of Caste is
(a) Barth, F.G. Bailey
(b) A. Beteille, F.G. Bailey
(c) Barth, A. Beteille
(d) E. Leach, A. Beteille
31. Andre Beteille is the exponent of
(a) Structural view of caste
(b) Functional view of caste
(c) Cultural view of caste
(d) Geographical view of caste
32. Katkari tribals are found in
33. On the north-west coast of the U.S.A and the west coast of Canada, tribes such as Nootka, built
(a) Oblong houses
(b) Spherical houses
(c) Triangular houses
(d) Cubical houses
34. The Apache of Arizona and New Mexico lived in houses made of
(a) Brush wood and scrub
(c) Unbaked bricks
(d) Long and pointed woods
35. Pluralism begins from the observation that industrial society is increasingly differentiated into a variety of
(a) Social groups and sectional interests
(b) Political groups
(c) Association group
(d) Business and professional group
36. The ‘Dugum Dani’ live in the highlands of
(a) New Guinea
37. The crux of the population policy is the
(a) settlement of more people in urban areas
(b) reduction of the national birth rate
(c) to reduce the sex-ratio
(d) to increase the number of women
38. India is the home of_________ percent of the world’s population. The country, however, accounts for percent of the total world area.
(a) 20 and 8
(b) 17 and 5
(c) 16 and 2.42
(d) 16 and 5.2
39. Which of the following states of India registered the highest growth rate of population during 1981-91?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(d) West Bengal
40. Which of the following is the most populous city of India according to 1991 census?
41. In the Indian context, a sex ratio of______ and above can be considered as favourable to females.
42. C.H. Cooley distinguished between primary and secondary groups. Another noted sociologist associated with group studies explored the implication of dyadic relationships and compared them with tradic ones. He also discussed the nature of superordinate and subordinate relationships, the characteristics of secret societies and other social phenomena at the micro- sociological level.
(a) Kurt Lewin
(b) J.C. Moreno
(c) J. Klein
(d) George Simmel
43. Who is known as the French Sorokin?
(a) Emile Durkheim
(b) Georges Gurvitch
(c) W.W. Rostow
(d) Morris Ginsberg
44. Hermeneutics means
45. Which term describes a theory according to which the essence of the phenomena of society and culture consists in their dynamic and developmental character?
(c) cultural specific
46. Who wrote The Poverty of Historicism (1957)?
(a) Karl Popper
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Karl Manheim
(d) William Dilthey
47. The experimental study is based on the law of:
(a) single variable
(d) interest of the subject
48. In the given series:
71, 72, 64, 68, 70, 76, 73, 75
The median is:
49. In a positively skewed distribution the value of mode is:
50. lf x̅ = 18, y̅ = 100, σ x = 14, σ y = 20, r = 0.8. Refression line of y on x =
(a) Y = 1.341x + 72.49
(b) Y = 1.143x + 79.42
(c) Y = 1.134x + 72.92
(d) Y = 1.341x + 74.29
51. The one method which satisfies the factor reversal test under the price index method is:
(a) Paasche’s Method
(b) Laspeyres Method
(c) Fisher’s Ideal Method
(d) None of the above
52. Consider the following statements:
1. Auguste Comte proposed a theory of evolutionary social change dividing it into three stages of thought- the religious stage, the metaphysical stage and the scientific stage.
2. According the Herbert Spencer’s evolutionary theory human societies evolve from “barbarian” to “civilized”.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) Both 1 and 2
(D) Neither 1 nor 2
53. Pseudo-kinship term is used to include those relationships in which:
(A) kinship terms relate ego to nearest kins
(B) persons are described or addressed by kin terms-, but they do not stand in such a relationship by virtue of the principles of descent or marriage
(C) kinship terms relate ego to distant kins
(D) persons are described or addressed by kin terms other than the ones with which they are actually related
54. Which among the following is not true?
Solidarity of the autonomous nuclear family depends largely upon-
(A) sexual attraction between husband and wife
(B) companionship between parents and children
(C) economic tie up among its members
(D) both (A) and (B) leave
55. Nuclear family in its volarized form consists of the:
(A) Parents of the same children and children of the same parents
(B) Parents of the different children and children of the same parent
(C) Parents of the same children and children of the different parents
(D) None of the above mentioned relation exists in nuclear family.
56. Consider the following statements:
Under the matrilocal residence-
1. wife has to live in husband’s father’s house.
2. mother has to live son -in-law’s house.
3. husband has to live in wife’s mother’s house.
4. father has to live in daughter-in-law’s house.
Which of the above statements is / are correct?
(A) 1 and 3
(B) 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 2 and 3
57. If x̅ = 65, y̅ = 67, r = 0.8, σ x = 2.5 σ y = 3.5 the Regression Equation of y upon x will be:
(A) Y = 1.12x – 5.8
(C) Y = 1.21x – 5.8
(D) Y = 0.21x – 8.5
58. “The state or process of adjustment to a conflict situation in which overt expressions of hostility are avoided and certain compensatory advantages, economic, social or psychological, are gained by both sides, while leaving the source of conflict unresolved and allowing the structural inequalities giving rise to minority subordination to persist.” This is the definition of:
(D) both (A) & (C)
59. According to whom, the decline of semi-autonomous groups within a society, such as voluntary associations, local communities and neighbourhoods gives rise to feelings of alienation and making such people more available for the appeals of extremist groups?
(A) R. Blauner (in Alienation and Freedom)
(B) E. Fromm (in the Sane Society)
(C) W. Kornhauser (in the Politics of Mass Society)
(D) None of these
60. Identify the person:
He felt that there was in social life a change from simple to complex forms—from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous and that there was with society an integration of the ‘whole’ and a differentiation of the parts. He developed many of Comte’s ideas in his ‘principles of sociology’-
(A) Herbert Spencer
(B) Emile Durkheim
(C) Henry Maine
(D) E. B. Tylor
61. Activities which contribute to the survival of social system patterns are known as eufunctions. What are dysfunctions Activities?
(A) which contribute to the disturbance of the social system patterns
(B) which hinder the organism’s adaptation to the social system patterns
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) neither (A) nor (B)
62. Which among the following statement regarding Agrarian society is incorrect?
(A) Agrarian society place a high value on inherited status
(B) The social order in agrarian society is more or less fixed
(C) It is a close-knit society despite economic disparity
(D) Even the slightest economic disparity among people in agrarian society is reflected in their style of life
63. Whose view is this?
Man always strived to arrive at an optimum population. Man took all the factors including environment, skill, customs etc., into account to attain this number. The optimum number is not fixed for all times. It depends upon the changes that occur in a given country or context.-
(A) Herbert Spencer
(B) D. Ricardo
(C) Adam Smith
(D) Alexander Morris Carr – Saunders
64. Which of the following statements about impact of modernisation is not correct?
(A) Modernisation has improved the standards of living of the people and has helped them to overcome their fear of new things
(B) Modernisation has destroyed traditional patterns of life which through centuries had evolved many human values
(C) Modernisation has generated many stresses as people have to cope with industrialisation, urbanisation, secularisation and rapid changes
(D) Modernisation is a simple process, which only deals with the social dimension of people of a given society
65. Which of the following statements about legitimacy is not correct?
(A) Legitimate power is ultimately a psychological concept
(B) The most effective method of assuring legitimacy today is the creation of the belief that the government is being run to promote and safeguard the interests of the common people
(C) The canon of legitimacy is applicable to only democratic political system
(D) Elections are primarily the means of legitimising the right of the rules to govern
66. Which one of the following, best describes the pattern of age-sex structure of a population passing through a stage of high fertility and high mortality?
(A) Population pyramid that represents a narrow base and gradually tapering top
(B) The base of the pyramid is of medium size but the middle portion, particularly specified for male population is enlarged and gradually reduces at the top
(C) Population pyramid that represents a broader base and gently sloping sides
(D) The base of the pyramid is narrow than the immediate higher-age interval and gradually reduces at the top
67. Among the following who is not associated with heredity theory about the origin of State?
(a) Kingsley Davis
(b) Karl Parson
(d) C.C. North
68. Which of the following is an essential element for the existence of a society?
(a) High level of education
(b) Belief in common political ideology
(c) Sociability among the members
(d) Share in private property
69. The concept of ‘Looking-glass self’ has been given by:
70. Just as the picture in the mirror gives an image of the physical self, so the perception of others gives an image of the social self. This view is related to:
(b) Looking glass self
(c) Consciousness of kind
71. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) The ‘looking-glass-self’ which the individual perceives may differ from the image others have actually formed
(b) Suggestion is devoid of rational persuasion
(c) Self-conscious assumption of another’s acts or roles is called ‘identification’
(d) Both a and b are correct
72. Acculturation means:
(a) Cross fertilisation of cultures
(b) Merger of two cultures
(c) Complete separation of the two cultures
(d) Nothing to do with the above
73. The concept of contra-culture was given by:
(a) Robert Redfield
(b) Milton Inger
74. Which of the following is not a means of culture contact?
75. If a number of culture traits combine together to produce a meaningful Connery, a segment within the total culture, then the same is called a:
(a) Culture complex
(b) Culture unity
(c) Culture area
(d) None of the above
76. Which one of the following is not the characteristic of culture?
(a) It is not related to individual behaviour
(b) It is communicated from one generation to the other
(c) It is communicated in physical form
(d) It has link with the past
77. A group whose membership is homogeneous in its class or caste composition is called:
(a) Vertical group
(b) Horizontal group
(c) Genetic group
(d) Voluntary group
78. Pick out one of the following which is characteristic of a crowd:
(a) There is always polarisation of attention
(b) In it emotions are consistent
(c) In it role of leader is insignificant
(d) In it people do not get unnecessarily excited
79. ______ has divided crowd into homogeneous and heterogeneous.
(b) Le Bon
80. According to Maclver, large scale organizations may be organizations on two principles __________, and _________.
(a) Federation, integration
(b) Compromise, accommodation
(c) Federation, official responsibility
(d) None of the above
81. A _______ is a collection of individuals two or more, interacting with each other, who have some common objects of attention and participate in similar activities.
(b) social group
82. Infancy is an _______ status.
83. Ascribed status in society is one which an individual gets-
(a) After hard labour
(b) Based on birth
(c) Based on marriage
(d) On the basis of his ability
84. For advancement of society ascribed and achieved statuses should-
(a) Conflict with each other
(b) Try to subordinate each other
(c) Former should get superiority over the later
(d) Both should go hand in hand
85. Status is something which is-
86. In our modern society ascribed status-
(a) Is replacing achieved status
(b) Controlling achieved status
(c) Is being replaced by achieved status
(d) Has not been at all affected by achieved status
87. In every society:
(a) there are some contradictory norms
(b) there can be no contradictory norms
(c) there are contradictory norms but these support each other
(d) contradictory norms can be obeyed without making any conflict with each other
88. Mohammedan societies permit polygyny, but Christian ones do not. From this which of the following can be deduced?
(a) Mohammedans are conservative people
(b) Christians have a healthy conception of marriage
(c) A social norm operative in one social system may not be operative in another
(d) In Mohammedan societies, the ratios of girls are higher than boys
89. Social values primarily concern themselves with-
(a) organised social life as a whole
(b) disorganised social life
(c) organised social groups
(d) organized institutions
90. Norms are of several types. Which one of the following is not the type of social norms?
91. Most effective way of making the group to observe social norms is:
(a) to give rewards to the observers
(b) to impose fines on the violators
(c) to create awe in the minds of the people
(d) to educate people about their necessity
92. A deviant behaviour at one time:
(a) will remain so at all times to come
(b) in one society will always be so in all other societies
(c) can become a standard norm at another time
(d) cannot become a standard behaviour at any time
93. Deviation means behaviour of a member in a society which:
(a) does not conform to norms of morality
(b) does not conform to social norms
(c) is socially dangerous and harmful
(d) injures the interests of an individual member
94. Pick out the thinker whose name is associated with psychoanalytical theory about deviant behaviour:
(c) Max Weber
95. Which one of the following is not a sanction behind norms?
96. Deviant behaviour-
(a) has nothing to do with legends
(b) has nothing to do with myths
(c) is usually opposed by legends
(d) is sometimes supported by legends and myths
97. A complex and rapidly changing society’s most important method of achieving social integration is-
(a) Economic planning
(b) Observance of social customs
(c) Religious harmony
(d) Social planning
98. Those who follow philosophy of ‘new order’ in integration believe in the-
(a) Abolition of existing social system
(b) Improvement of existing social order
(c) Method of half-way improvement
(d) None of the above
99. A ‘loosely woven’ society is one-
(a) Which is not integrated
(b) Which is poorly integrated
(c) In which there are no rigid social norms
(d) In which people do not have wide range of alternative modes
100. In ‘loosely woven’ societies quote often there is variation in-
(a) Individual behaviour only
(b) National behaviour only
(c) Neither in individual nor in national behaviour
(d) Both in the individual and national behaviour
101. ‘Closely Woven’ type of integration is common in-
(a) Communistic societies
(d) Liberal democracies