List of important sociology questions and answers. This will help you to learn about the most important sociology questions and answers which is more likely to be asked in UPSC, UGC-NET, IAS, Civil Services, eligibility tests and other competitive examinations!
1. There are two types of causal explanation namely
(a) Scientific and Historical
(b) Positive and Negative
(c) Positivist and Phenomenological
(d) Scientific and Sociological
2. In scientific explanation attention is concentrated upon the
(a) Relation between a particular fact and a universal law
(b) Relation between observation and fact
(c) Relation between happenings and observation
(d) Relation between observation and particular custom
3. The notion of function has mainly been used by
(a) biological science
(b) social science
(c) physical science
4. Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber were of the opinion that science of society must begin by
(b) Solving the social problem
(c) Posing question
5. Who has explained Sociology as the science with the most methods and the finest results?
(a) Henry Poincare
(b) Henry Maine
(c) Auguste Comte
(d) Herbert Spencer
6. The extreme form of functionalist approach was propagated by
(b) A.R. Radcliffe Brown
7. Who has made distinction between function and dysfunction?
(a) A.R. Radcliffe Brown
(b) R.K. Merton
(c) T. Parsons
8. Which among the following statements is not correct?
(a) In past communities used to be self-sufficient, politically, socially or economically.
(b) No community can be self-sufficient these days
(c) Every community is self-sufficient these days
(d) The term community denotes almost uniformly and permanently shared lives of people over a definite range.
9. Which among the following is not true regarding association?
To constitute an association there must be
(a) A group of people
(b) These people must be organised.
(c) They must have a common purpose of a specific nature to pursue
(d) Associations do have inbuilt purposes
10. The social arrangement in which a group of people plans the activities which others are obliged to participate in is called
(a) informal organisation
(b) formal organisation
(d) social group
11. Modern sociological analysis of formal organisation began with the work of
(a) G. C. Homan
(b) Robert Redfield
(c) Max Weber
12. An act is considered legitimate or morally acceptable when it is in harmony with
(b) accepted values
13. The number of secondary kins is
(a) Sixty Nine
(b) Sixty eight
(c) Thirty three
14. How many tertiary kins are there?
(a) One hundred fifty one
(b) One hundred thirty three
(c) Sixty nine
15. Levirate marriage is also called
16. No_______ relation lives in the Tharawad.
17. There are two types of marriage among Muslims. Identify them.
(a) Polyandry and Polygyny
(b) Beena and Muta
(c) Beena and Meena
(d) Monogamy and Polygamy
18. Who among the following has not said anything of kinship?
(c) Radcliffe Brown
19. When several sibs or clans combine to constitute a still wider grouping it is called
(a) Clans grouping
(b) Clan community
(d) Joint family
20. Despite interdependence between rural and urban, there are certain distinctive features which separate them from each other. Among the following which are these?
2. Demographic Composition
3. Style of life
5. Social relations
(a) 1, 2, 3
(b) 1, 5 only
(c) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
(d) 3, 4, 5
21. Rural people live in settled villages. How many types of settlement patterns have been observed in rural areas mainly?
22. Absolute ruler, tyrant and an oppressor may be termed as
23. The political system of modern society can be best described in terms of
5. Basis of legitimacy
(b) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
(c) 1, 4 and 5
(d) 2, 3 and 5
24. Nesfield was of the opinion that the Indian caste system originated from
(a) different occupation
(b) racial differences
(c) varna division
(d) brahaminical supremacy
25. The concept of ‘Dominant Caste’ was propounded by
(a) T.B. Bottomore
(b) M.N. Srinivas
(c) A. Beteille
(d) G.S. Ghurye
26. Who among the following had provided a classification of tribal movements in North- East India?
(a) S.M. Dubey
(b) G.S. Ghurye
(c) V. Elwin
(d) T.N. Madan
27. Which of these are classification of tribal movements in North-East India provided by S.M. Dubey?
1. Religious and social reform movement
2. State formation movements
3. Insurgency movements
4. Culturological movements
(a) 1 and 4
(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
28. The hunting and gathering society is usually relatively small. Where do they move to?
(a) Geographical conditions are favourable
(b) Where plenty of rains
(c) Quality of soil is good, to be more productive
(d) Food and game are plentiful
29. ‘Arunta tribes’ of Australia were
(d) Hunters and gatherers
30. A child is considered to be a baby between the age of
(a) 1-5 years
(b) 1-6 years
(c) 1-3 years
(d) 1-7 years
31. Fertility is less than______ in all societies.
32. Who made a distinction between extended and polygamous families?
(a) Bell and Vogel
(b) Park and Burgess
(c) G.P Murdock
(d) J. Goody
33. Who wrote ‘An Essay on the History of Civil Society,’ 1767 which represents a systematic developmental sociology?
(a) John S. Mill
(b) C. Wright Mills
(c) Adam Ferguson
34. The following cannot be located with the help of an ogive:
35. Find the odd one out:
36. Which one of the following pairs is NOT correctly matched?
(A) Looking glass self- Charles H. Cooley
(B) Super-ego- Alfred L. Kroeber
(C) Collective conscience- Emile Durkheim
(D) Taking the role of the other- George H. Mead
37. Which one of the following is the correct statement?
(A) The term ‘role-distance’ as developed by Erving Goff man implies people’s ability to
(B) Say ‘no’ to what they are expected to do for others
(C) Free themselves from the standard demands of roles
(D) Sabotage the system in a manner so that they are not expected to perform any role
38. Who among the following observed that the democratic method is that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people “vote”?
(A) Robert A Dahl
(B) Joseph Schumpeter
(C) Karl Mannheim
(D) None of the above
39. Consider the following stages of political socialization during childhood:
1. The recognition of authority through particular individuals, such as child’s parents, the President and the policemen
2. The development of distinction between internal and external authority
3. The recognition of impersonal political institutions such as Congress, the Supreme Court and voting
4. The development of a distinction between political institutions and the persons engaged in the activities associated with those institutions
Which of these are the stages posed by ‘Easton and Dennis’?
(B) 2, 3 and 4
(C) 2 and 4
40. In which of the following statements, Durkheim has identified the indirect functions of crime?
(A) Collective sentiment against the infringement of norms
(B) Fear of punishment
(C) Flexibility in society
(D) None of the above
41. Who has advocated that functional analysis need not be confined to society as a whole but it can be extended to an organisation, institution or group?
42. The _____________ method consists in the collection of data concerning the living and working conditions of people in a given area with a view to formulate practical social measures for their betterment and welfare.
(a) Social statistics
(b) Social survey
(d) Ideal type
43. The ______________ method is a form of qualitative analysis involving the very useful and complete observation of a person, a situation or an institution.
(a) Inverse deductive
(b) Case study
(c) Social Survey
(d) Historical method
44. The variety of functionalism that views functions and an activity of an institution which satisfies the need or needs of the individual are known as:
(a) Psychological Functionalism
(b) Sociological Functionalism
(c) Organismic Functionalism
(d) Structural Functionalism
45. Which of the following is not a point of similarity between human and animal society?
(a) Both want self-reservation
(b) Both wish to perpetuate
(c) Both have tendency to live in groups
(d) Both want mental development
46. Who among the following said that “where there is life, there is society”?
(b) Kingsley Davis
(c) Campbell Young
(d) Max Weber
47. _______ lead sub-cultures.
(d) Culture complex
48. Muslim culture is a__________ of Indian culture.
(a) Contra culture
(c) Cultural area
(d) None of the above
49. A group in which members are face to face with each other and have fellow feelings is called:
(a) Distinctive group
(b) Social group
(c) Primary group
(d) Primate group
50. Which of the following is not associated with primary group?
(a) Face-to-face relation
(b) Smallness of the group
(c) Durability of bond
(d) Existence of formal laws
51. A group in which a person is not born but in which he voluntarily moves in is known as:
(a) Genetic group
(b) Congregate group
(c) Interest group
(d) Formal group
52. Who of the following has said that, “A crowd is a gathering of considerable number of persons around a centre or point of common attraction”?
(a) Kingsley Davis
(b) Kimball Young
(c) Gillin and Gillin
53. “Status is the social position that determines for its possessor apart from his personal attribute or social services, a degree of respect, prestige and influence”- this definition has been given by:
54. Which statement on roles is wrong?
(a) An individual in the course of his life performs a number of different roles, successfully or simultaneously
(b) The synthesis of all the social roles that an individual has performed from birth to death constitutes his social personality
(c) A person cannot perform his role without the cooperation of his social circle
(d) Roles do not figure in the process of socialisation
55. Norms are briefly speaking:
(a) attitude towards life
(b) standards of behaviour
(c) relation with the neighbour
(d) individual approach towards social problems
56. Conformity to norms in a society can be maintained when these are:
(a) flexible but applied rigidly
(b) rigid and applied rigidly
(c) flexible and applied with flexibly
(d) based on religion
58. Basic purpose of sanctions are:
(a) To weaken solidarity of a strong group
(b) To strengthen solidarity of a weak group
(c) Not to disturb groups
(d) To bring solidarity in a particular group
59. Which of the following is not covered under the category of formal sanction?
(c) Public opinion
60. Socialization process in human beings takes place-
(a) during childhood
(b) during young age
(c) at different intervals
(d) for the whole life
61. Who viewed expectation and inspiration as the two main bases of socialization and learning?
(c) J. Piaget
62. “Competition performs the broad function of assigning to each individual his place in his social world. Competition is a progressive force which fulfills and does not necessarily destroy.” These are the words of-
(a) E.A. Ross
(b) Gillin and Gillin
(d) H.T. Mazumdar
63. Which among the following involves competition?
(a) Wrestling match
(b) Football match between Mohan Bagan and Modammedan Sporting Club
(c) A tribal archery competition
(d) Candidates taking the IAS examination
64. Who has written the book ‘The History of Human Marriage’?
65. Which one of the following is NOT true of origin of polyandry?
(a) the women were fewer in number
(b) the men could not afford maintaining one wife
(c) men could successfully control their sexual urge
(d) there was desire to save property from division
66. Which one of the following is NOT an important cause of the weakness of modern family?
(a) The family is not required to provide medical facilities
(b) The family is not supposed to arrange for recreation
(c) It is not supposed to socialise the members
(d) All its members try to become economically self- sufficient
67. Which one of the following is NOT a disadvantage of joint family system?
(a) It encourages idleness
(b) It stands in the way of development
(c) It leads to quarrels
(d) It makes leisure difficult
68. Kinship system has been affected by industrialization because:
(a) bonds of family are weakening
(b) joint family system is breaking
(c) means of transportation and communication have improved
(d) migration at national and international level has become easy and popular
69. One of the factors which has effected kinship more these days is:
(a) economic pattern
70. Who wrote the book, ‘Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte’?
(c) Herbert Marcuse
71. Jajmani relations are ____________.
(d) dependent on Jajman’s will
72. The system of marriage in which woman marries all the brothers of her husband is called:
(a) non fraternal marriage
(b) adelphic marriage
(c) polygamous marriage
(d) monogamous marriage
73. Which one of the following is not true of the tribal economy?
(a) superstitions play no part in it
(b) there is no complex economic system
(c) there is not much of economic mobility
(d) not many small scale industries are in existence
74. Industrial system is distinguished from the previous system on the basis of-
(a) availability of means of production
(b) availability of means of distribution
(c) availability of capital
(d) application of mechanical power to work machines
75. The Heresy theory believes-
(a) man is a corporate being
(b) man is an individualistic being
(c) man’s ultimate aim is collective economic interest
(d) man’s behaviour is not a process of calculated self- interest
76. The expression ‘water for life’, best explains the importance of water for agricultural purposes. From which of the following named sources water has contributed to the development of civilization and culture?
(a) The immense irrigation schemes
(b) The large reservoirs made by man
(c) The large rivers
(d) A network of wells and canals
77. Mark out among the following the common factor which characterizes all the cities-
(a) Majority of the occupants are engaged in activities other than agriculture
(b) Majority of occupants are engaged in government service
(c) Majority of occupants are engaged in trade and commerce
(d) Majority of occupants are engaged in industry
78. Early marriage is associated with
(a) high fertility
(b) high fecundity
(c) low fecundity
(d) low fertility
79. Which of the following statements about Malthus’ theory of population is false?
(a) Malthus has talked of preventive checks and positive checks
(b) Malthus placed emphasis on the limitation of the supply of land
(c) Malthus has grasped the significance of industrial development
(d) Population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence
80. Who has described four types of social movements namely Tranformative, Reformative Redemptive and Alternative movements?
(c) D. Aberle
(d) M.SA Rao.
81. Which explains the process of westernization in India?
(b) Reference group
82. Sanskritization stand for –
(a) Learning Sanskrit in the traditional Pathshala system
(b) Teaching Sanskrit
(c) Acquiring Sanskrit tradition and imitating the customs and practices of higher castes by lower castes
(d) Imposition of Brahmanical practices
83. Which one of the following statements best explains the arguments of the feminist movement?
1. Women live longer than men
2. Gender inequality is rooted in Patriarchy
3. Only men are responsible for gender inequality
4. Participatory parenthood promotes gender equality.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 2 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4
84. “Socio cultural phenomena are always recurrent and the process of social change is essentially cyclical”. Which of the following combination represents this view?
(a) Marx, Lenin and Durkheim
(b) Malinowski, Brown, Parsons and Merton
(c) Tylor, Comte, Spencer, Morgan
(d) Sorokin, Spengler, and Tonybee
85. Who among the following has analysed the stages of social evolution as simple, compound, double compound and trebly compound?
(a) L. H Morgan
(b) E. B Tylor
(c) E. Durkheim
(d) H. Spencer
86. __________ refers to a movement into a particular area
87. Which one of the following is NOT correct
(a) taboo on association of males and females
(b) taboos on social inter-course
(c) taboos against formation
(d) taboos against meeting of husband and wife
88. Human population can
(a) exist apart from cultural interaction
(b) exist apart from social interaction
(c) exist both apart from socio-cultural interaction
(d) not exist apart from socio-cultural interaction
89. According to the theory of social capillarity people in the cities produce less children because:
(a) they are faced with space problem
(b) they cannot properly educate them
(c) they have desire to go up
(d) there are social cleavages
90. Which one of the following is NOT true of village community in India?
(a) The people are conservative
(b) The villagers are custom ridden
(c) The people are illiterate
(d) The villagers have come out of the clutches of moneylenders
91. Which one of the following did not play an important role in the growth of village community in the very beginning?
(b) Water resources
92. In India in the past, one of the characteristics of the village was that:
(a) it too much depended on outside assistance
(b) it was a self-sufficient unit
(c) the people had too much of mixing with others
(d) the people had desire to cooperate with other villages.
93. Which one of the following is NOT true of the marriage system in villages of India?
(a) Old family status is given great weightage
(b) Child marriage is on the increase
(c) Expenditure on marriage is on the decrease
(d) Education of the couple is being given due weightage
94.__________ is a process, a movement of population from rural areas of agricultural activity to city areas of manufacturing and service activities.
95. Who gave the ‘central place theory’ on the process of urbanisation?
(b) Walter Christaller
(c) Homer Hyot
(d) Iban Khaldan
96. Who defines region, “as an area within which the people and the different constituent communities are conspicuously more interdependent than they are with people of other areas”?
(c) Arnold Green
(d) H.T. Majumdar
97. Mark out the correct statement.
(a) Cities display a large degree of uniformity all over the country
(b) City is a multifunctional unit, with only one function fully developed
(c) City is a multifunctional unit, where at last a group of functions are almost equally important
(d) City is a homogeneous place
98. Which of the following features is not common in a town and a city?
(a) Multiplicity of functions
(b) Quick means of transport
(c) Uniformity all over the country
(d) Majority of occupants are engaged in nonagricultural activities
99. By lower hunter economy which was supposed to be prevailing in primitive times, we mean an economy in which there was-
(a) direct utilisation of products of nature
(b) direct utilisation of natural products without alteration
(c) indirect utilisation of nature’s products
(d) indirect utilisation of nature’s products and that too with alterations
100. In a complex society, which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of economy?
(a) It is linked with other nations of the world
(b) It revolves round profits
(c) It does not take social needs into consideration
(d) It is impersonal in many ways
101. Pick out one of the following which does not hold good in the case of new industrialism-
(a) health conditions of the people improved
(b) life expectancy increased
(c) infant mortality got reduced
(d) quality and quantity of diet increased
102. In the primitive days trade was carried on with the help of:
(c) exchange of goods
(d) exchange of women
103. Effect of new industrialism was that the rate of-
(a) production of only consumer goods increased
(b) production of only producer goods increased
(c) neither producer nor consumer goods increased
(d) both producer and consumer goods increased
104. In simple economy which of the following did not fit in?
(a) There was identification of labour with his work
(b) There was no competition in marketing
(c) There was dependence on machines
(d) There was no mass production
105. Which one of the following is NOT true about new industrialisation?
(a) Effect of production was neutralised by increased population
(b) There was unbalanced distribution of wealth
(c) There was huge concentration of wealth in just a few hands
(d) Majority of the people got associated with the means of production
106. Lower hunter implies several things. Which of the following is NOT covered by that?
(a) absence of tools
(b) possession of goods to be consumed
(c) way of transferring environments
(d) absence of making tools and instruments
107. Which one of the following was NOT true of new industrialism’?
(a) there was considerable extension in fine arts
(b) generous endowments were made to, the centres to learning
(c) hours of work very much increased
(d) illiteracy disappeared
108. Under state capitalism it is believed that the labour-
(a) is source of all economic values
(b) has less important role in industry than the capital
(c) and capital have almost equal role in industry
(d) none of the above
109. Which one of the following was NOT true of craft guilds?
(a) These avoided market competitions
(b) These arranged economic fairs
(c) These upkept the standards of workmanship
(d) These encouraged competition with market guilds
110. The system of industrialism is distinguished from the previous system on the basis of-
(a) adaptation of new inventions
(b) employment of number of people
(c) qualities of the goods produced
(d) marketing of the goods produced
111. New industrialism had several characteristics, which one of the following was NOT one of those?
(a) workers were divorced from possession of the capital
(b) workers had no share in the management
(c) workers were kept out of market control
(d) workers were identified with the goods produced
112. Which of the following has been called as the twin brother of industrialism?
(c) capitalist system
(d) none of these
113. Every manor in the past:
(a) was almost a self-contained economic unit
(b) depended on other manors for everything
(c) depended on the king for survival
(d) was linked with other manors in social life
114. Which one of the following does not apply to new industrialism?
(a) There was concentration of wealth
(b) There was increased unemployment
(c) There was absence of starvation
(d) There was environmental pollution
115. In a complex society which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of the economy?
(a) It absolutely undermines labour
(b) It gives the highest priority to capital
(c) In it middle men play a big role
(d) It is competitive in nature
116. Guild system in the past had several characteristics. Which one of the following was NOT true of the system?
(a) These were association of people engaged in the same occupation
(b) The members of the guild lived at the same place
(c) The members of the guild were employed in the same occupation but did not live together
(d) Guilds in the past did not exist
117. Which of the following does not hold good in the case of state capitalism?
(a) It keeps resources in the hands of the State
(b) State concentrates all political power in its own hands
(c) State controls all economic resources
(d) It seeks profits as, a way of commanding all other institutions
118. Guilds disintegrated due to several reasons. Which one of the following was NOT an important cause of disintegration?
(a) These had become largely monopolistic
(b) These competed with each other
(c) These avoided competing with each other
(d) These were dominated by hard task masters
119. Which one was NOT true of craft guilds of the simple economy days?
(a) These looked after the interests of the trade
(b) These defended themselves from the merchant guilds
(c) These had no rivalry with the merchant guilds
(d) These helped in regulating the prices
120. Pick up one of the following which does not hold good in the case of new industrialism:
(a) there was considerable economic stability
(b) there were trade fluctuations
(c) there was waste of land
(d) there was waste of raw material
121. Which one of the following is NOT true of the functions of the guilds?
(a) These performed religious and political functions
(b) These had nothing to do with religious and political functions
(c) These had considerable power in medieval courts
(d) These were often instrumental in making laws
122. Which one of the following was NOT the characteristic of merchant guilds?
(a) These promoted economic interest of the merchants
(b) These tried to keep monopoly of the trade
(c) These brought pressures on the rulers
(d) These ensured that activities of the guilds were confined to the village
123. Which one of the following was NOT the characteristic of new industrialism?
(a) Personal relationship was not possible even in small group
(b) Joint stock company system came into operation
(c) Divorce between the owners of stock and the officials was taken for granted
(d) There was division between capital and management
124. According to Marxian philosophy in the industry the labour accepts less wages because:
(a) he has left his home
(b) he has no capacity to produce
(c) he knows that the employer will not give him alternative job
(d) he knows that his labour cannot be preserved
125. In complex economy of today the welfare of the workers is:
(a) completely ignored
(b) partly taken care of
(c) given the highest priority
(d) none of the above is true
126. To which of the following linguistic groups do Kols and Munder tribes fall?
127. Santhal and Oraon tribes practice marriage by:
128. Which one of the following is NOT one of the chief characteristics of tribe?
(a) People live on a common territory
(b) Members have a sense of unity
(c) Members speak common language
(d) It has no specific political organisation
129. Which one of the following is NOT an objective of tribal dormitory?
(a) To organise young boys and girls
(b) To serve as recreational houses
(c) To enjoy club life
(d) To make them economically self-sufficient
130. Which one of the following is NOT a point of similarity between a tribe and a horde?
(a) Both are professionally close to each other
(b) In both head of the family enjoys considerable respect
(c) Both obey the head of their family
(d) Both need equal amount of protection