Read this article to learn about the aims, funding and implementation of Indira Awaas Yojna (IAY).
Aims of IAY:
To meet the shortage of housing in rural areas, a programme called Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) was launched in May 1985 as a sub-scheme of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JAY).
It is being implemented as an independent scheme since 1st January 1996 and is the flagship programme for rural housing.
The Indira Awaas Yojana aims at providing assistance to rural people below the poverty line belonging to SCs and STs, freed bonded labourers and non SCs and STs categories for the construction of dwelling units and upgradation of existing unserviceable kutcha houses by providing grants-in-aid.
From 1995-96, Indira Awaas Yojana benefits have been extended to widows or next-of-kin of defence personnel killed in action. Benefits have also been extended to ex-servicemen and retired members of the paramilitary forces as long as they fulfill the normal eligibility conditions of Indira Awaas Yojana. Three percent of funds are reserved for the disabled persons living below the poverty-line in rural areas.
Funding of IAY:
Indira Awaas Yojana is a centrally sponsored scheme first funded on cost-sharing basis between the Government of India and the states in the ratio of 80: 20. This was later revised to 75: 25 with effect from 1st April, 1999.
Implementation of IAY:
Indira Awaas Yojana is implemented through District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) or through zila parishads at the district level and Block Samities at the intermediate level. Grain Panchayats have been assigned the role of identifying the beneficiaries of this scheme.
To ensure transparency and efficiency in the allotment of houses under the scheme the permanent waitlist for IAY at Gram Panchayat level based on the BPL census of 2002 has also been initiated.
Under the scheme, allotment of the houses is done in the name of the female members of the households or in the joint names of husband and wife. A minimum of 60 per cent of funds are to be utilized for construction of houses for SCs/STs. Sanitary latrine and smokeless chulhas are also provided to the beneficiaries.
Selection of construction technology, materials and design is left entirely to the choice of beneficiaries. The ceiling on assistance for construction of new houses has been increased from Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 25,000 per unit for the plain areas and from Rs. 22,000 to Rs. 27,500 per unit for the hilly/difficult areas with effect from 1st April 2004.
The upper limit in respect of conversion of kutcha houses into semi-pucca houses (upgradation) has also been increased from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 12,500 per unit from the same date and up to 20 percent of IAY funds can be utilised for this purpose.
Around 143.13 lakh houses have been constructed/ upgraded from 1985-86 to 2005-2006 (As per reports received upto April 2006) under the scheme with an expenditure of about Rs. 26,305.08 crore. The Central Allocation for rural housing during 2004-2005 was Rs. 2,500 crore, out of which an amount of Rs. 2,460.67 crore was allocated for IAY with a target of building about 15.62 lakh houses.
The entire amount was released and about 15.21 lakh houses have been reported constructed/upgraded.
An allocation of Rs. 2,750 crore was made available during 2005-2006 for Rural Housing. For Indira Awaas Yojana, an amount of Rs. 2,732.40 crore was allocated for construction/upgradation of 14.41 lakh houses during 2005-2006. Against this an amount of Rs. 2,738.22 crore has been released and 15.52 lakh houses have been constructed in the year as per reports received from the states.